Broad recycling in the chemical purposes is characteristic. At the copper-smelting enterprises of Krasnouralsk, Kirovgrada and Revda sulphurous gases serve as initial raw materials for production of sulfuric acid. In Krasnouralsk and Revda on the basis of sulfuric acid and apatite concentrates phosphatic fertilizers are made.
The nickel-cobalt industry is most closely connected with of raw materials that is caused by the low maintenance of the products (matte and Feinstein) received in the course of processing of initial ores.
Ores of non-ferrous metals differ in the lowest maintenance of components. The typical ores used for production of copper, lead, zinc, nickel, tin have only some percent, and sometimes and shares of percent of the main metal.
Nonferrous metallurgy includes production, enrichment and processing of ores of non-ferrous, precious and rare metals, including production of alloys, hire of non-ferrous metals and processing of raw materials, and also production of diamonds. Participating in creation of more and more quality constructional materials, it carries out essential functions in conditions scientific and technical progress.
For nonferrous metallurgy the organization of the closed schemes with repeated processing of intermediate and utilization of various waste is characteristic. In the long term this tendency. At the same time limits of a production that gives the chance except non-ferrous metals to receive additional production — sulfuric acid, a mineral, cement, etc. extend.
The main area of production of copper — the Urals for which prevalence of metallurgical conversion over production and enrichment is characteristic. Therefore here are compelled to use imported (the most part of a concentrates.
As optimum for alumina production it is necessary to consider areas where along with aluminum raw materials limestones and cheap fuel meet. Treat them, in particular, Achinsk and Krasnoyarsk in Siberia and Severouralsko-Krasnoturyinsky in the Urals.
The combination of nonferrous metallurgy and the main chemistry which appears, in particular, when using sulphurous gases in the course of production of zinc and copper is of special interest. Even more territorial combinations of different productions arise at complex processing of nephelines when from the same raw materials are extracted aluminum as finished goods, soda, potash and a and thus to the sphere of technological communications of a color gets not only chemical industry, but also a of construction materials.
The Olovodobyvayushchy industry nickel - cobalt is presented to contrast by territorially separated stages of process. Metallurgical conversion is not connected with istoch-raw materials nicknames. It is focused on areas of consumption of finished goods or located along the line concentrates (Novosibirsk). It is caused by that, on the one hand, production of raw materials is often dispersed on small fields, and with another — products of enrichment possess high transportability.
Meanwhile most intensively loose fields were always developed: their development demanded smaller means and time in comparison with the radical. Now falls to their share near 3/4summarnoy production.
Due to a variety of the used raw materials and wide non-ferrous metals in the modern industry the color is characterized by difficult structure. On physical properties and appointment non-ferrous metals conditionally share on four groups: the main which treat heavy (copper, lead, zinc, tin, ), lungs (aluminum, magnesium, the titan, sodium, potassium, etc.), small (bismuth, cadmium, antimony, arsenic, cobalt, mercury); alloying (to, molybdenum, tantalum, niobium, vanadium); noble (gold, silver and platinum with platinoids); rare and scattered (zirconium, gallium, indy, thallium, germany, selenium, etc.).